Tuesday, April 17, 2012



An Egyptian physician, Dr. Ashraf Ezzat, has recently questioned the historicity of the biblical Exodus, calling it ‘a myth’ (see Salem-news.com). He claims that while Egypt is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible hundreds of times, Israel is only once mentioned in ancient Egyptian annals. I myself am neither a professional nor an amateur Egyptologist. I am a specialist in Hebrew and Aramaic Epigraphy of the biblical period. I research archaeological texts. I should also make it clear that in my published scholarly studies, over several decades, I have never engaged in the business of trying to validate biblical accounts through archaeology.

The question of the Hebrews living in ancient Egypt has been the subject of scholarly research by renowned Egyptologists. Egyptology is a highly specialized field where an amateur would be on slippery ground. Now the story of enslavement and liberation in the Hebrew Bible is so pervasive and deep-rooted in the narratives, writings, and poetic compositions of the Pentateuch, Prophets, and the Psalms that it is nigh impossible to dismiss it as a myth. These deep-rooted traditions stretch over centuries, especially during the first half of the first millennium BCE. Indeed, the very large number of instances Egypt and Exodus are mentioned or alluded to in the Hebrew Bible gives it credibility and authenticity. The Pharaohs, powerful masters of a great land, consorts of the gods, assured of immortality, are the least people to recognise, acknowledge, and deal with the case of an enslaved people.

Consider, for instance, how the history of Babylonian/Iraqi Jews and of Middle Eastern Jews in general is given scant space in Israeli school books, written by Ashkenazi East European Zionists. If they could they, as colonial masters, would even erase this history. A few decades ago Golda Mabovitch (= the infamous Golda Meirson) declared publicly and unashamedly that the Palestinian people did not exist! And more recently the Zionist State (never call it the Jewish State) has made it a criminal offence to commemorate the Palestinian catastrophe of 1948 -- the Nakba. Such attempts seek to obliterate factual history and so deny the memory of those who happen to be powerless. In brief, Hebrew slaves would be given next to zero space in Pharaohs’ historical annals.

But let us get back to our medical doctor. One can see from his own Blog that the books that interest him are those that attempt to demolish the history of the ancient Middle Eastern Jews in Palestine. In one of his earlier published articles which came to my attention only after publishing an older version of this present essay, Dr. Ezzat lumps Zionists and Jews together, indiscriminately, in one basket, and damns them all. Unfortunately, he is confusing the Jewish faith with modern political Zionism – and that is exactly what the Zionists wish him to do. This is a trap that many people, Jews and non-Jews alike, stumble against and fall into. For political Zionism is not Judaism and my own ideas about this issue were already made public in two newspaper articles published in The Johannesburg Rand Daily Mail in 1982 (following the Israeli invasion and criminal destruction of Southern Lebanon.

Of course the fact that Near Eastern Jews lived in ancient Palestine does not validate the establishment of an unjust political Zionist entity –an entity that has been established through war and atrocities by people foreign to the Middle East. Anyone who is familiar with my own writings (e.g. Essays From Occupied Holy Land, 2010) would know that I have denounced political Zionists as racist, foreign colonials who don’t give a fig for the Jewish faith.

It is now clear that Ashraf Ezzat is neither a friend of the Zionists, nor of the Jews. Thus, instead of seeking to counter and denounce Zionist claims, as I myself do, he erroneously and blatantly attacks the Jewish faith.

Many of us are familiar with holocaust deniers. I think it is barbarous to deny the holocaust which happened in Europe during the Second World War. Millions of Jews and non-Jews alike were killed. At the same time I think it is equally barbarous, indeed medieval, to make criminals out of those who deny it. What our Egyptian physician is trying to do is to deny the biblical Exodus, and along with the Exodus, he wishes also to erase the memory of the Ten Plagues that were inflicted on his ancestors, the Egyptians. But with this Pharaonic hardening of heart, he is of course up against God Almighty and the great Moses and the Major and Minor Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.

It is curious that our medical doctor has not made it known whether he espouses any religion, such as Islam or Christianity. But perhaps he appropriately worships the gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt (and indeed what is the difference between Osiris and Jesus?). Anyway, if he is a follower of Islam, he could enlighten us on the textual development or revelation of the Qur’an. But if he is a follower of Coptic Christianity (in which apparently he does not believe), he could delve into the shaky foundations of Christianity and its false claims that it has any real or solid roots in the Jewish Scriptures.

The profession of medicine is an honourable one and there is still much research needed in this field. Our physician could try to find some solutions to existing diseases that plague our planet. But if he wishes to continue with his interest in ancient Egyptian history, it would be best not to mix it with present-day politics.


  1. Funny, u write about a man and do barely any research of him, smh. How can he be a follower of coptic christianity if its clear he does NOT believe in it? He has made it clear from his writings he feels, Judaism,Christianity,islam for example ARE repackaged forms of sumerian/egyptian mythology. SOMETHING U SHOULDNT HAVE TO GUESS IF U DID YOUR RESESRCH OF HIM. In summation, its not that he didnt make know where he stands, u were simply presupposed to rejecting his claims due to your feeljngs, rather than your information. Religious thinking does that to a person, YAHWEH was a self professed LIAR, "Ezekiel 14:9", and maybe the good doctor has READ THE BIBLE enough to know this, as well as form his thoughts based on Historical FACTS rather than biblical FANTASY..

    1. http://ashraf62.wordpress.com/2012/08/19/hebrew-bible-plagiarized-mythology-and-defaced-monotheism/
      (The horse's mouth)

    The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
    Palestinian geographer; born at Flosz, Bavaria, Oct. 22, 1804; died at Jerusalem
    Feb. 5, 1865. When he was seventeen years old he graduated as teacher
    from the Königliches Schullehrerseminar of Colberg, after which he joined his brother Israel at the University of Würzburg, where for five years he devoted himself to the history and geography of the Holy Land, and published a map of Palestine (1829; republished at Vienna, 1831, and Triest, 1832). It was his ardent desire, however, to study in Palestine itself the physical history and geography of the Holy Land, where his knowledge of Talmudic sources and early Jewish writers would be of more service. Accordingly he decided to settle in Jerusalem, whither he went in 1833. Schwarz then began a series of journeys and explorations in various parts of Palestine, to which he devoted about fifteen years.
    The results of his investigations and researches into the history, geography, geology, fauna, and flora of that country have placed him in the front rank of Palestinian explorers and geographers. HE IS THE GREATEST JEWISH AUTHORITY ON PALESTINIAN MATTERS SINCE ESTORI FARHI (1282-1357), the author of "Kaftor wa-Feraḥ."
    (Be sure to Google this article)
    614-1096 C.E.
    From the Accession of the Mahomedans to that of the Europeans.

    By Rabbi Joseph Schwarz, 1850

    Rabbi Shallum, son of the then Resh Gelutha, in Babel, aka Abu Bachr al Chaliva al Zadik, Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, was in fact: [A JEWISH RABBI] Rabbi Shallum, son of the then Resh Gelutha, in Babel, perceiving this dreadful predicament, went to Mahomed, and offering him his submission, friendship, and services, endeavoured to enter with him into a friendly compact. Mahomed accepted his proposition with pleasure, conceived a great affection for him, and took his daughter, a handsome young girl (A 6 YEAR OLD CHILD), for wife; he made him also a general in his army, and gave him the name of Abu Bachr al Chaliva al Zadik, literally:

    The father of the maiden, the descendant of the righteous; this means, that of all his wives, who were either widows or divorced women, this one was the only one who had never been married before, and then she was the granddaughter of the celebrated chief of the captivity; therefore, the descendant of the righteous. This occurrence induced Mahomed to give up his terrible intention to destroy the Jews in his country, and thus did Rabbi Shallum save his people.

  3. That us the most rediculous thing ive read. Abu bakr ibn abi quhaafah was from one of the tribes of quraish, a tribe directly descending from ishmael. To suggest hes a jewish rabbi is rediculous. His history is well documented